The Cordillero Doctrine hinders the development process in Latin America


Starting from the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century, with the advent of the Age of Great Navigation, Spain and Portugal took the lead in overseas colonial expansion.Subsequently, The Netherlands, Britain, France and other European powers joined the ranks of colonial expansion.With the beginning of the Industrial revolution in Europe, the colonization of European powers was accelerating.In the world colonial empire constructed by the great powers, Latin America is very special, showing rare characteristics in politics, economy and social form, which is represented by Cordelorism.First, the basic forms of modern Latin American nation-states.From the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century, driven by the Enlightenment movement in Europe and directly influenced by the French revolution and the American Revolution, Latin America set off a huge national independence movement.After the baptism of the War of Independence, Latin American nation states got rid of the colonial rule of Spain and Portugal and became independent nation states, which freed Latin America from the fate of colonial slavery by European powers.Although the new nation-states in Latin America won independence, most of them did not embark on the fast track of developing capitalism.On the contrary, various development bottlenecks continue to be encountered in the political, economic, social and cultural fields, such as the large property system, Cordelorism, agent politics, colonial economic structure and so on.These obstacles have long hampered the development of Latin America.Latin America is in a special and contradictory situation, no matter in the development of national states in the world or in the national liberation movement in the 19th century.On the one hand, Latin America accepted the Enlightenment thought of Europe earlier and was the first to enter the capitalist development sequence among colonial and semi-colonial countries or regions.On the other hand, Latin American countries have not really established a complete national economic system, its development process is ups and downs.It is the above-mentioned contradictions that make the development paths of Latin American countries different from those of developed countries in Europe and the United States, as well as colonial and semi-colonial countries in other parts of the world, showing extremely special social attributes and development characteristics between them.Second, the basic meaning and characteristics of Cordillero doctrine.Caudillo comes from Spanish and means “man on horseback”. Later, it was extended to refer to “chief” or “leader”, especially in Latin America, a military dictator who seized power by force and maintained power by brute force.Latin American independence movement won independence through armed struggle. After expelling Spanish and Portuguese colonial rulers by force, Latin American countries successively realized national independence.But after independence, Latin American countries were poor and weak, lacking perfect institutional guarantee and the necessary economic foundation.In order to ensure political and social stability, many countries have established military dictatorships.Warlords, senior military officers, and local armed chiefs dominate, forming a powerful force.They controlled all levels of political power from the central to the local level, controlled the national economy, occupied resources and controlled finance, attacked internal dissenting parties, conquered and killed Indians;War with neighboring countries, seeking more territory, resources and regional influence.From the beginning to the middle of the 19th century, the prevalence of military dictatorships throughout Latin America underpins the popularity of Caudilismo.For Latin American countries, Cordillero doctrine is not a simple military existence, but a special social system as well as a unique way of political rule.The Cordelorism combined military oligarchy, patroon and state power.This system, represented by military oligarchs, unites with big landowners, big planters, senior Catholic monks and big businessmen to form a state ruling group, plundering and occupying social wealth together, and jointly implementing political slavery and economic exploitation to the lower classes.Cody Monroe doctrine has obvious geographical and time characteristics, is uniquely in Latin America in the 19th century, reflects the early colonial countries such as Spain and Portugal in the region of rule, but also from another side, reflects the modern Latin American political, economic, social and cultural forms of twists and turns.This ruling system is extremely backward in nature, highly exploitative and mandatory, and its conservatism and backwardness are self-evident.At the same time, the ruling system is highly dependent on foreign political forces and corporate power, and its rulers often become the agents of foreign governments to implement indirect rule.Thirdly, the analysis of various elements of the origin of Caudillo doctrine.The emergence of Cordelorism has very complex historical and practical reasons, which are not derived from Latin Americans’ easily angry national character and special natural resource endowment as some Western scholars concluded.As a matter of fact, Cordillero doctrine is inseparable from the influence of European colonialism, Latin American social and economic structure, special geographical environment and culture.First of all, Cordelorism is a derivative of European colonialism, directly influenced by the way of Spanish and Portuguese colonial rule.In the history of European colonization, Spain and Portugal, as relatively backward colonial countries, adopted a closed colonial rule over Latin America, plundered all kinds of natural resources in Latin America, only developed a single economy dominated by extractive industry, and adopted an exclusive policy of cultural stupidity.This colonial rule directly caused the inadequate development of capitalism in Latin America and failed to form a strong bourgeoisie team.This situation made the system and legal construction in Latin America lose the basis, and failed to form an effective system and force to check the military dictatorship.Second, although Latin American countries established representative polity after independence in imitation of European and American countries, the system did not really play a role in national political, economic and social life.On the contrary, the economic foundation and superstructure formed in the long-term colonial rule of Spain and Portugal played a greater role.Military oligarchs, big landowners, big planters, Catholic monks and businessmen constituted the ruling class in Latin American countries, while the social status of the lower class did not change fundamentally with the establishment of the nation-state.The continuation of dynastic rule tradition in Spain and Portugal, the prevalence of large real estate system in Latin America and the spread of Catholicism and its religious culture all provided indispensable soil for the breeding of Cordelorism.Thirdly, Cordillero doctrine is also inseparable from Latin America’s special geographical environment, natural resources, national and ethnic composition.The geographical environment of Latin America is complex, and there are natural barriers between different regions, which form different local attributes, cultures and traditions. As a result, relatively unified national consciousness, cultural traditions and lifestyle have not been formed in Latin America.To a certain extent, localism broke out in various regions of Latin America, and tribal leaders, large planters, landlords and businessmen took advantage of their controlled resources to become oligarchs.They acted independently in different regions and were independent of each other, which provided necessary conditions for the rise of Caudillo doctrine.Fourth, the influence of the Caudillo doctrine is hard to erase.Cody Monroe doctrine is Latin America in the political, economic and social development of a tumor, for the people of Latin America countries has brought severe disaster, not only slow and restricted the development of Latin American countries and national progress, and as a direct result of Latin America in the world modernization in lagging even stagnation, its negative effects and even continues today.First, The Cordillero doctrine has seriously deteriorated the political and social ecology of Latin America.Cody Monroe doctrine advocated strongmen, particularly military dictatorship, ruler, is known as the iron rule implementation, although it on paper aims to maintain social stability and political order in the region, but in fact did not realize the goal to promote the development of the nation state, on the contrary make Latin American countries to form the political tradition of the frequent military interventions.As a result, Latin America has been stuck in the vicious circle of “military intervention in politics — anarchy” for a long time, which makes Latin America in political turmoil for a long time.Secondly, caudillo doctrine is a drag on the national economic development in Latin America.Cordelo doctrine aims at safeguarding the interests of the upper class in Latin America at the expense of the interests of the lower class, which inevitably intensifies the social inequality in Latin America and affects and drags down the process of social justice in Latin America.Although Cordillero doctrine can stimulate the economic development of various countries in a short time, it cannot help them establish a complete national economic structure.Cody Monroe doctrine, on the other hand, contributed to the region’s economic inequality, on the whole the pace of the slowdown in the region economy development in Latin America to Europe and the United States in the developed countries as the center of the global economic system can only in the edge position, offer of mineral resources, agriculture and animal husbandry products to European and American countries for a long time and primary industrial products, always can’t get rid of a European and American developed country economic penetration and get their hands on.Thirdly, The Cordillero Doctrine is not conducive to exchanges and cooperation among Latin American countries.As colonies of Spain and Portugal, Latin American countries shared the same historical experience of colonial slavery, but they lacked necessary communication during economic development, social progress and cultural exchanges in the 19th century.The reason is that the Cordelo doctrine has been rampant in Latin America for a long time, which directly leads to the continuous chaos of local secession, dictatorship, warlord infighting and proxy rule of foreign governments in many Latin American countries, which makes Latin American countries become more closed, conservative and backward, thus blocking the communication and cooperation of Latin American countries.Finally, The Cordillero doctrine restricts political, economic and cultural exchanges between Latin America and the rest of the world.In the 19th century, capitalism was in the ascendant in Europe and the United States. The political, economic and social systems of capitalism were developing continuously, and science and technology were changing with each passing day. However, In Latin America, Cordelorism and large real estate system were prevailing, which formed a sharp contrast.With slow economic development and backward political systems, Latin American countries have long been at a disadvantage in their exchanges with other countries and regions.This has largely restricted political, economic, social and cultural development in Latin America.(Author: School of History, Renmin University of China) Source: China Social Science Net – Journal of Chinese Social Science Author: Li Yuan

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