Jin Dynasty porcelain unearthed from Corpus in Ye County, Henan Province

From May 2006 to October 2008, henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, together with Pingdingshan Bureau of Cultural Heritage and Ye County Bureau of Culture, organized an archaeological team to excavate the part of Ye County Corpus site occupied by the main canal of the south-to-North Water Diversion project.The Yexian Jiji site is located in Jiji Village, Changcun Township, Yexian County, Henan Province and its southwest area. The site can be roughly divided into the east and west, the northeast of which is the Yangshao to Longshan culture site of neolithic Age, and the southwest of which is mainly the Site of The Jin and Yuan dynasties.The main canal of the middle route of the south-to-North Water Diversion project runs from south to north in the middle and east of the Jinyuan site.Due to the rich remains of the site, more than 3,000 square meters were excavated on the basis of the original plan of 8,000 square meters, and the actual excavated area reached 11,300 square meters.The cultural layers of the site are thick, with an average depth of nearly 2 meters.The site almost continuously spans the Tang, Song, Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties, especially the Jin Dynasty remains and relics.In terms of the overlapping relationship between different layers, the site can be divided into the following different periods from bottom to top, that is, from morning to night: The first period is the early Tang Dynasty, there are only a few ash pits and ash gullies. It is speculated that at that time, the site may have been used as agricultural farmland, and some ash gullies may have been drainage facilities.About the second period in the late tang dynasty to the northern song dynasty period, appear on the site of a large area of hard soil trample, estimates that square is a nature of large-scale activities, but remains and relics found few, about the third period, in the early song dynasty to the jin site first appeared in a wide range of accumulation is very thick ram very solid green mat brown soil,It was clearly the foundation of a large, unified, planned capital project.Then some irregular column holes appeared on the site, obviously belonging to the relatively simple straw huts, of course, there are also some houses made of blue brick.At the same time, there also appeared a lot of fire chamber, fire pool, stove, well and cellar pit.The fourth period is the middle and late Jin Dynasty. In the site, there are four large scale bedding layers with different ranges and different earth colors, which are almost connected together, and we call them the building base sites.In the western half of this large building base site, there are large emission buildings. The fifth period is from the end of Jin Dynasty to the middle of Yuan Dynasty, which is the last large-scale construction period in the site.The housing foundation site is also built on a large range of bedding, that is, the building site.It is just that its construction method is different from before, all use large river pebbles as the foundation and column foundation of the wall foundation, building scale is larger, more magnificent.The site has since fallen into decline as the houses have been abandoned.The sixth period is about the end of the Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty. The site was reduced to a corner in the northeast of the Site of the Jin And Yuan Dynasty.Its abandonment marks the end of the site.More than 1470 relics of various types have been found at the Corpus site.There are 7 large building foundations, more than 50 house foundations, more than 1100 ash pits, more than 10 cellar pits, more than 20 ash ditches, 3 roads, more than 80 ground stoves, more than 100 fire ponds, more than 60 brick ponds, 14 Wells, 1 tunnel, and 4 tombs.Among them, the most important relics are 5 large house foundations with good preservation, 4 cellars with a large amount of preserved porcelain and 1 cellars with a large pot of copper coins.Most of the relics are located in the cultural layer between the Jin and early Yuan dynasties.In terms of the overall layout of corpus Site, it is based on an east-west road that has been in use since the late Tang Dynasty and traverses the middle of the site from west to east as the central axis. All the other relics are arranged along the north and south sides of the street respectively, and then spread out in a north-south direction.The road turns northeast in a slow arc in the middle of the excavation area and diverges south at the turn.Since the site is located on a secondary terrace on the north bank of the Ruhe River, it is likely that this fork was a passageway leading to the riverfront wharf.About 30 metres south of this fork is a river bluff.Most of the housing sites are built along both sides of the street.Due to the differences in the age of its architectural form is also very different, from morning to night can be roughly divided into single room type, simple straw shed type, even row house type and courtyard type.The earliest single-room buildings belong to the Tang Dynasty to the Five Dynasties period, only two have been found.The earlier straw-shed buildings belonged to the early Jin Dynasty and were located on either side or even on the road.Most of the remaining remains are cylindrical caves.The later houses, belonging to the early and middle Jin dynasty, were a type of brick terraced building with three or four or seven rooms connected together.Mostly with green bricks buried in the wall base groove as the foundation, the wall or with green bricks and adobe built, or in the wall base groove erected a number of wooden columns, after filling the base groove with rammed earth, the so-called wooden bone wall.The most recent group of housing foundation site belongs to the late Jin Dynasty to the early Yuan Dynasty. It is a kind of courtyard building, using large river pebbles as the wall foundation and column foundation. The column foundation pit is round or square, and its mouth diameter or side length is about 1 meter.The north side of the main house, the east and west side of each wing, the courtyard behind some additional properties of small houses.Its east-west length 22.15 meters, north-south width about 20 meters.This courtyard is magnificent, the foundation is broad, with many stones, smooth and meticulous, deep and solid, not by ordinary people’s power to build.From the surrounding ash pits, a large number of brick fragments can be seen that in addition to a large number of thatched houses, at least some of them were tile-roofed houses.The cellars are located in or near the base of the house. Most of them are round pits with small mouth and large bottom, and a few are square pits, and some have tunnel cavity.Among the numerous pits, more than 90 pieces of porcelain and 100 pieces of iron ware and pottery were unearthed from four pits.There is a pit full of copper coins, estimated to be more than 800 kilograms, unearthed in a large tank, most of the northern Song dynasty copper coins, but also the Southern Song and Jin dynasty copper coins.Other pits more or less unearthed some porcelain, copper coins or iron hoe, iron pan, hoop and other utensils.In this batch of porcelain from the cellar pit, especially the well-preserved three sets of tea cups equipped with cup holders, bowls and LIDS are more noticeable.Most of these pits are from the Jin Dynasty, perhaps as late as the early Yuan Dynasty.The well has soil wall well and brick wall well, well mostly have more porcelain fragments, many can be restored.The stoves are built with adobe or dug in situ. The stoves face different directions, and the water jars or POTS inside and outside the house are mostly stuck in a custom-made pit below the living surface to fix their position.A number of POTS were found at the site, some buried in a small pit under the living surface.There are many hexagonal or square brick pools and round pit pools in the residential area. Some of them are filled with brown or gray grass and wood ashes. They may be used to place POTS or other utensils or pits, and sometimes they are used as a fire chamber to keep the temperature of food in the pot.More than 2,300 complete or relatively complete artifacts have been discovered.According to their texture, they can be divided into pottery, porcelain, tricolor, iron, copper, silver, jade and stone.The largest number of porcelain, most of them are household utensils.According to the difference of glaze color, it can be divided into white, black, green, jun and maroon color, of which white porcelain accounts for the majority, black porcelain and sauce glaze porcelain take second place, celadon and Jun porcelain are less.According to incomplete statistics, the types of porcelain include bowls, plates, bowls, bowls, pans, jars, bottles, lamps, ewers, honour, basins, jars and other utensils.In addition, there are porcelain figurines, twisted balls, toys and so on.In terms of its decorative techniques, the plan is to mold, engraving and painting, decorative pattern types are tricolor, white ground black flowers, red and green color and blue and white flowers.Typical porcelain varieties include white glazed melon rims, sunflower mouth bowls, chrysanthemum petal bowls, bamboo bowls, black glazed convex yellow line ewers, tri-colored pillows and lamps, white bowls and basins with black flowers, etc.In several large ash pits of the Jin Dynasty, there are many white porcelain bowls with inks inscribed with family names or personal names, presumably the user’s family name or given name. In addition, inks inscribed with “Du Wu” and “Du” were also found at the bottom of one bowl.These records may be closely related to the use of the site at a certain time.Unearthed from the ruins of the eaves tiles and large shibi building components, a large number of civilian and a small amount of relatively high-grade porcelain, porcelain of large stove and fire pool is concentrated, the relative concentration of copper coin and porcelain aged pits, and the more go, dice, etc and entertainment related toys, this is obviously not a general sense of village site.Taking various factors into consideration, the archaeologists believe that the site of Anthology should be the remains of —- market town, which was a large-scale folk commodity circulation and trading place, extending from the Tang Dynasty to the Yuan Dynasty.The relatively clear and definite stratigraphic relationship and abundant relics and relics in the site provide a number of precious materials for the study of the historical and cultural features of this area from Tang Dynasty to Ming Dynasty, especially the development of economic trade, cultural exchanges and social life among the people in jin and Yuan dynasties.According to the archaeological report, all the following selected artifacts are classified as those of the Jin Dynasty.001. Green glaze bowl diameter 22.4cm bottom diameter 6.9cm high 10.9cm open, oblique arc belly, small circle foot.Blue glaze, glaze with ice crack.Mat burn.The mouth of the green grey glazed bowl is slightly converging with a diameter of 22.8cm, a bottom diameter of 6.7cm and a height of 10.8cm. It has an inclined arc belly and a small circle with the foot emblem left outside.Green glaze gray, a strong glass texture, glaze mesh open.003. Flower mouth bowl with chrysanthemum line grain diameter 24.4cm, bottom diameter 7.8cm, height 11.6cm, flower mouth, arc belly, small circle foot.The abdomen is chrysanthemum linear, corresponding to the flower mouth.Green glaze, glaze bright, glaze full of grid – shaped opening.Mat burn.Jun porcelain buckle silver edge bowl 13.7cm diameter 4.5cm bottom diameter 8cm high mouth slightly collect, inclined arc belly, small circle foot.The silver buckle of the mouth has peeled off.Sky blue glaze, glaze bright, uniform and delicate, the whole body ice crack open.Green glaze bowl diameter 19cm bottom diameter 5.5cm high 8.8cm open, oblique arc belly, small circle foot.The blue glaze is gray, with a strong glass texture, and the whole body is cracked, and the mouth is brown along the thin glaze.Mat burn.006. Jun porcelain grape spot bowl with diameter of 8.6cm, bottom diameter of 2.9cm, height of 6cm is small.Collect mouth, arc belly, small circle foot.Grape purple glaze, part of the blue, glaze bright, uniform fine, mouth along the thin glaze was light brown.Mat burn.007. The green glaze hot mouth bowl has a diameter of 13.6cm, a bottom diameter of 3.8cm and a height of 6.1cm.Blue glaze gray, a strong glass texture, ice cracks open the whole body, pad burning.Jun porcelain bowl diameter 11.2cm bottom diameter 4.1cm 4.6cm high open, oblique arc belly, small circle feet.Sky blue glaze, glaze bright, smooth and delicate, small ice cracks open the whole body, mouth along and thin body glaze is light brown.Mat burn.Small celadon bowl 8.5cm diameter 3.1cm height 4.7cm small shape.Pointed lips, mouth slightly collected, arc belly, small circle feet.The green glaze is gray in green, with a strong glass texture, and the mouth is light brown along the thin glaze.Mat burn.010. The fully glazed burning plate has a diameter of 17.8cm and a bottom diameter of 9.5cm. The plate has a width of 3.1cm and a height of 3.1cm.Azure glaze, glaze bright, smooth and smooth, mouth along the thin glaze was light brown.Full glaze support firing.011. Plate along the plate diameter of 18.2cm bottom diameter of 10.7cm plate along the width of 3.1cm high 3.3cm wide plate, slightly oblique, along the outside of the shallow convex edge a week, low arc belly, large flat bottom, circle foot.Azure glaze blue, glaze bright, uniform fine, ice crack open, mouth along the thin glaze was light brown.Full glaze support firing.At the same time unearthed dishes, bowls, except the plate along the plate is full glaze support burning, the rest of the foot without glaze, are pad burning.Jun porcelain disc diameter 16.6cm, bottom diameter 5.3cm, height 3.8cm, sharp lip, open, oblique arc belly, flat bottom, small round feet.Azure glaze, glaze jade-like embellish, ice cracks open the whole body, mouth along the thin glaze was light brown.Mat burn.Celadon plate diameter 15cm bottom diameter 4.8cm height 2.9cm pointed lips, open, fold wall shallow abdomen, flat bottom, small round feet.The green glaze is green, and the glaze is bright and smooth.Mat burn.The diameter of Jun porcelain ewer is 2.2cm, the bottom diameter is 4.9cm, the height is 10cm, the lips are round, the shoulders are sliding, the abdomen is bulging, the lower abdomen is slowly drawn to the bottom, the bottom is flat, and the feet are circled.There is a flow on one side of the abdomen, a slight residual flow mouth, and a corresponding handle on the shoulder.Azure glaze, glaze bright, smooth and delicate.015. Jun porcelain cover, cup and bracket, with a height of 7.8cm, have flat edge, concave at the top, and upturned inner lip, forming a child opening and cup buckle.The calyces are open, arched belly, flat bottom, and small circle feet.Support for wide flat along, oblique arc belly, flat bottom, circle foot.The cover, cup and bracket are all azure glaze, the glaze surface is bright, uniform and delicate. The whole body is cracked and sliced, and the mouth is light brown along the thin glaze.Mat burn.The bottom diameter of jun porcelain cover pot is 5.2cm and the height is 9.3cm. The cover is flat, and the top is concave. There is a grip button in the top, and the inner lip is warped to form a child opening, which is fastened with the pot body.The jar is a mouth, deep belly outside the drum, lower belly to the bottom slowly, flat bottom, circle foot.Azure glaze blue, glaze has a strong glass texture, the whole body ice crack open.Mat burn.Jun porcelain cup diameter 7cm, bottom diameter 3.6cm, height 5.4cm, arc belly, flat bottom, ring foot.Blue glaze purple, glaze jade-like embellish, full of fine ice crack open, mouth along a light brown, part of the exposed tyre.Mat burn.018. Celadon three-foot furnace with external diameter of 10.3cm and internal diameter of 8cm, residual height of 7.6cm and wide folding edge, slightly inclined inside, a week along the outer edge, short neck, round belly, attached with three conical feet, round bottom, bottom center dug a round pit.The green glaze is green, the glaze has glass texture, and the whole body is cracked.The diameter of green glaze branch burner is 24.2cm, the bottom diameter is 13.8cm, the height is 5.6cm, the arc belly is open, and the ring foot is round.There are 5 millet grain stud marks on the bottom.Green glaze is green, glaze is full of ice crack.Ru kiln open circle foot plate circle foot more than outside the main.Jun porcelain 匜 diameter 16.7cm 7cm high pointed lip, open, oblique arc abdomen, flat bottom, concave foot.The mouth along the external groove flow, flow down the ring.Azure glaze, glaze bright, smooth and delicate, glaze is full of dense mesh opening, mouth along the thin glaze is light brown.Exquisite shape.021. Green glazed disc diameter 17.8cmm 4.1cm high, pointed lip, open, oblique arc belly, flat bottom, round foot.Glaze green pan gray, glaze erosion is more serious.Mat burn.

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